## Electricity Concepts

- Describe voltage, charge, and current
- Reason about relative current flows in series and parallel circuits
- Reason about relative energy consumption in series and parallel configurations
- Reason about relative current flows in wires of different sizes

## Electricity Circuit Models

- Recognize and describe ideal models for resistors, batteries, voltage sources
- Able to estimate voltage, current, power, and energy in circuit elements using circuit models
- Describe and recognize practical applications of circuit models
- Draw how humans can become a circuit component
- Describe basic household wiring and safety
- Apply circuit concepts to thermal circuits
- Estimate the resistance of wires from physical properties

## Batteries

- Describe current-voltage curve using ideal and internal resistance model for a battery
- Calculate current, voltage, and energy available from series and parallel combinations of batteries
- Quantify battery bank currents and voltages to loads
- Describe basic environmental and resource implications of wide-scale battery use

## Motors

- Describe how forces are produced by currents and magnets
- Describe basic parts of a motor (rotor, stator, windings)
- Estimate voltage and current to motor using simple model (back emf and copper loss)
- Predict rotation speed and torque for a motor from specifications and current provided
- Describe the function of power converters and transformers and make estimations of power or efficiency
- Estimate the efficiency of a motor based on copper loss

# Solar Applied Physics

- Able to estimate and calculate sun angles from date and time
- Calculate loss of power from relative angle of panel and normal rays
- Able to define the solstices and equinoxes
- Able to interpret sun path diagrams
- Able to calculate the incident radiation on a panel

# Photovoltaic System Sizing

- Estimate current and voltage from PV using IV curve
- Estimate current, voltage, and power from an IV array
- Recognize and describe peak sun hours
- Estimate the monthly energy using peak sun hours and TMY
- Able to use and interpret data from PV Watts
- Able to use PV IV curve stacking to determine how multiple panels will behave in series and parallel
- Able to calculate the effect of temperature variation on current, voltage, and energy production

# Computation

- Able to enter basic PV data into PV Watts tool and interpret results
- Able to take CSV output from PV Watts and load into a spreadsheet
- Able to determine which columns of a data set to use in a calculation of total energy or value of energy
- Use conditional and logic statements to perform time of use calculations

# Utility and LCOE

- Describe how to estimate the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE)
- Estimate LCOE for energy sources using simple assumptions
- Describe the difference between load-following and supply-following
- Describe the duck curve in California energy generation

# Financial Engineering

- Describe the time value of money
- Calculate the present and future value of single and multiple payments
- Construct a spreadsheet showing loan payments and remaining principal
- Use the capital recovery factor (CRF) to calculate energy loan costs
- Estimate LCOE for energy including the cost of capital