## Electricity Concepts

• Describe voltage, charge, and current
• Reason about relative current flows in series and parallel circuits
• Reason about relative energy consumption in series and parallel configurations
• Reason about relative current flows in wires of different sizes

## Electricity Circuit Models

• Recognize and describe ideal models for resistors, batteries, voltage sources
• Able to estimate voltage, current, power, and energy in circuit elements using circuit models
• Describe and recognize practical applications of circuit models
• Draw how humans can become a circuit component
• Describe basic household wiring and safety
• Apply circuit concepts to thermal circuits
• Estimate the resistance of wires from physical properties

## Batteries

• Describe current-voltage curve using ideal and internal resistance model for a battery
• Calculate current, voltage, and energy available from series and parallel combinations of batteries
• Quantify battery bank currents and voltages to loads
• Describe basic environmental and resource implications of wide-scale battery use

## Motors

• Describe how forces are produced by currents and magnets
• Describe basic parts of a motor (rotor, stator, windings)
• Estimate voltage and current to motor using simple model (back emf and copper loss)
• Predict rotation speed and torque for a motor from specifications and current provided
• Describe the function of power converters and transformers and make estimations of power or efficiency
• Estimate the efficiency of a motor based on copper loss

# Solar Applied Physics

• Able to estimate and calculate sun angles from date and time
• Calculate loss of power from relative angle of panel and normal rays
• Able to define the solstices and equinoxes
• Able to interpret sun path diagrams
• Able to calculate the incident radiation on a panel

# Photovoltaic System Sizing

• Estimate current and voltage from PV using IV curve
• Estimate current, voltage, and power from an IV array
• Recognize and describe peak sun hours
• Estimate the monthly energy using peak sun hours and TMY
• Able to use and interpret data from PV Watts
• Able to use PV IV curve stacking to determine how multiple panels will behave in series and parallel
• Able to calculate the effect of temperature variation on current, voltage, and energy production

# Computation

• Able to enter basic PV data into PV Watts tool and interpret results
• Able to take CSV output from PV Watts and load into a spreadsheet
• Able to determine which columns of a data set to use in a calculation of total energy or value of energy
• Use conditional and logic statements to perform time of use calculations

# Utility and LCOE

• Describe how to estimate the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE)
• Estimate LCOE for energy sources using simple assumptions
• Describe the difference between load-following and supply-following
• Describe the duck curve in California energy generation

# Financial Engineering

• Describe the time value of money
• Calculate the present and future value of single and multiple payments
• Construct a spreadsheet showing loan payments and remaining principal
• Use the capital recovery factor (CRF) to calculate energy loan costs
• Estimate LCOE for energy including the cost of capital